AUTOMATED & ELECTRIC VEHICLES ACT 2018

 

CHARGING POINTS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND INSURANCE FOR AUTONOMOUS CARS

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Boris Johnson is an electric vehicle advocate

 

ELECTRIC TRUCK & VAN FEB 2020 - I think its a bit of an understatement to say that Boris Johnson has taken the UK automotive world by surprise by his announcement yesterday that the sale of petrol and diesel cars and vans will end in 2035 – five years earlier than previously announced.

 

Not only that, he’s gone even further by including hybrid vehicles which will send a shiver down the spines of one or two corporate shoulders in both the automotive and leasing fraternity.

 

Interestingly, he didn’t mention if any of the staged goals along the way have changed. For instance, the Department for Transport’s “Road to Zero” programme (essentially the government’s bible on the decarbonising of the automotive sector) mentioned a ‘2030 stage’ when it was compiled by the former Transport Secretary Chris Grayling just 18 months ago.

 

According to the document, the government wanted to see at least 50% – and as many as 70% – of new car sales and up to 40% of new van sales being ultra low emission by 2030. 

 

Of course, one of the key changes from the original goals is the inclusion of hybrids to the ban, basically meaning we are going for zero emission at tailpipe rather than low emission – a phenomenally major deviation from the course already set less than 18 months ago. 

 

So where does this leave the automotive industry and for our part the light commercial vehicle sector?
Before I answer this, let me first let you know my position on the whole issue. I am totally behind any sensible and achievable plan to de-carbonise the road transport sector; I feel we must and should aim as high as possible BUT reality must also play its part! 

 

We have to remember not every van operation is currently suitable for electrification but this will change over time, but the speed of transition and matching this to product availability will be a challenge. 

 

We also have to recognise that light commercial vehicles come second in the pecking order after passenger cars for most OEMs. I don’t know why, because often the average profit per unit is higher, but obviously the volumes are smaller (although growing disproportionately faster than passenger cars!). 

 

Inevitably vans will be competing with their passenger car cousins for batteries and that creates a problem, i.e. battery supply. This is not a vehicle issue – its basically down to a “battle for the batteries”!

 

The UK market cannot be seen isolation – it is a very large global market. Comparisons are also often drawn with Norway, but in reality this is also irrelevant because of everything from the carbonisation of their grid to the size of the market and their incentive schemes – I wish it was that simple!

 

For our country to have the ability to ban the sale of new diesel, petrol and hybrids by 2035, we will need a sea change in government attitude and more importantly financial support! 

 

Just as imperative, the European OEMs need to substantially increase their investment and capacities because selling around 3.5m zero-emission cars and vans a year in the UK within 14 years (we are already in 2020) is a brilliant goal to set – but setting a goal and providing the environment for that to be achieved is another .

 

All of us in the industry need to call the government to account if we are not given the tools to make this happen; they set the goals so should also provide the framework and financial environment to help industry achieve it!
Its going to be a bumpy and challenging 14 years, but I wouldn’t miss it for the world and I support the maxim; that its better to try and fail than never try at all, especially when failure is not an option!
By Tim Campbell

 

 

DOT NEWS 18 OCTOBER 2017

 

Boost for electric and driverless car industry as government drives forward green transport revolution 
Automated and Electric Vehicles Bill will mean more electric car chargepoints and enable insurance for driverless cars.

Motorway services and large petrol retailers will be required to install chargepoints for electric cars, under plans announced in the House of Commons today (18 October 2017) by Transport Minister John Hayes.

 

The Automated and Electric Vehicles Bill will increase the access and availability of chargepoints for electric cars, while also giving the government powers to make it compulsory for chargepoints to be installed across the country and enabling drivers of automated cars to be insured on UK roads


Automated vehicles have the potential to greatly reduce road traffic accidents - in 2016 85.9% of collisions causing injury involved human error, while official research estimates that the market will be worth £50 billion to the UK economy by 2035.

 

Transport Minister John Hayes said:

 

We want the UK to be the best place in the world to do business and a leading hub for modern transport technology, which is why we are introducing the Automated and Electric Vehicles Bill in Parliament and investing more than £1.2 billion in the industry.

 

This bill will aid the construction of greater infrastructure to support the growing demand for automated and electric vehicles as we embrace this technology and move into the future.

 

Drivers of electric vehicles will be able to easily locate and charge at any chargepoint, using information from sat navs or mobile apps, regardless of the vehicle make or model - making running an electric vehicle even easier. All chargepoints will have to be ‘smart’, meaning they can interact with the grid in order to manage demand for electricity across the country.

 

 

 

 

Roads Minister Jesse Norman said:

 

Automated and electric vehicles will help improve air quality, cut congestion, boost safety and create thousands of skilled jobs in the UK. We have already supported the purchase of 115,000 ultra-low emission cars and there are already more than 11,500 publicly available chargepoints, but the demand continues to grow as more people purchase electric vehicles to cut fuel costs and boost the environment.

 

Jesse Norman will also announce further funding for local authorities at the Smarter Travel Conference in Milton Keynes on Thursday (19 October 2017) to fund install chargepoints in residential areas where cars are parked on the street.

 

Steve Gooding, Director of the RAC Foundation said:

 

We are pleased to see the provisions of the Automated and Electric Vehicles Bill re-starting their passage through the Parliamentary process

 

It is clear that government needs to do more to accelerate the take-up of electric vehicles, tackling the issues that are currently persuading motorists to stick with conventional fuels, as well as paving the way for autonomy

 

The test, though, will be how effectively those powers are exercised

 

All drivers of automated vehicles will be required to be insured and victims of collisions involving an automated vehicle will have quick and easy access to compensation, in line with existing insurance practices.

 

James Dalton, ABI:

 

Insurers wholeheartedly support the development of automated vehicles, as they have the potential to significantly reduce the large number of road accidents caused by driver error. We support the approach the government has taken in the bill, as this will give the industry time to prepare for the commercial rollout of fully automated driving technology.

 

The bill will receive its first reading in the House of Commons today.

 

Roads media enquiries 020 7944 3021 

 

 

DOT boost for driverless cars and electric vehicles charging points

 

DOT UK - This legislation is part of the Government’s industrial strategy to promote the development and deployment of both automated and electric vehicles and is in line with policies on climate change. Note that an automated vehicle (AV) does not have to be electrically powered and an electrically powered vehicle does not have to be an AV.

 

The purpose of this legislation is both to amend the existing compulsory third party insurance framework by extending it to cover the use of automated vehicles and deal with electric and hydrogen powered vehicle charging infrastructure.

 

 

 

UK MAP - Draft infrastructure networked grid for the UK to kick-start EV service station building, aiming for a low carbon society that is sustainable and climate friendly by 2050 to comply with the targets set by the Climate Change Act 2008. This map is simplified and includes the Republic of Ireland for practical reasons. Supplied by and used with permission of Bluebird Energy Systems. If we use just the intersections as likely locations that would mean installing 60+ stations, that could recharge more than the 14,000 charge points in the UK as of January of 2018. Another 1,800 such stations at strategic locations could service all 25,000,000 million vehicles in the United Kingdom. Optimistic, but you have to start somewhere when conceptualizing.



DOT NEWS 
19 JULY 2018

 

New powers to kick-start the rollout of electric chargepoints across the nation. The new laws will improve consumer confidence in charging electric vehicles and modernise insurance rules.

 

The UK took a major step in its electric vehicle revolution today (19 July 2018) when the Automated and Electric Vehicles Act passed through Parliament.

 

The act is a significant step towards improving air quality, cutting congestion, boosting road safety and the creation of thousands of jobs across the UK.

 

The AEV Act will see a massive improvement in electric chargepoint availability; giving the government new powers to ensure motorway services are upgraded with plenty of points, and even allowing mayors to request installations at large fuel retailers in their areas.

 

The new laws will improve consumer confidence in charging their vehicles by:

 

- making sure that public chargepoints are compatible with all vehicles

 

- standardising how they are paid for

 

- setting standards for reliability

 

 

1:20th scale model of an electric truck service station using instant cartridge refuelling

 

MODEL 1:20 - April 6 2020, a model of the service station is under construction, shown here with two Mercedes articulated container trucks inside. We are using plywood for the building and some of the working parts - that cannot be shown due to patent law prohibiting prior publication. The Automated & Electric Vehicle Act 2018, makes it law in England that provision must be made for charging and refuelling of electric vehicles at service stops. This system would more accurately be described as a refuelling point - since the energy exchanges for trucks and cars are virtually instant. The building can be a quarter this size for city locations where space is limited. But for load levelling purposes, the larger the capacity of stored electricity, the more efficient the grid. Copyright photograph © 6 April 2020, Cleaner Ocean Foundation.

 

 

Jesse Norman, Roads Minister, said:

 

The UK is becoming a world leader in the roll-out of low-emission transport. Today we have passed a significant milestone in that journey.

 

The increasing automation of our cars is transforming the way we drive, and the government is steadily updating our laws in order to prepare for the future.

 

This act will ensure that the UK’s infrastructure and insurance system is ready for the biggest transport revolution in a century.

 

The act will also bring automated vehicle insurance in line with longstanding motor insurance practice, ensuring that motorists are covered both when they are driving, and when the driver has legitimately handed control to the vehicle.

 

The measures in the new act form part of the government’s recently launched Road to Zero strategy. The strategy sets the stage for the biggest technology advancement to hit UK roads since the invention of the combustion engine.

 

The UK will also be hosting the world’s first Zero Emission Vehicle summit later this year in Birmingham, promoting the UK as a world leader for investment in and uptake of zero emission vehicles.

 

 

UK CABINET POLICY MAKERS - APRIL 2020

 

 

 

Boris Johnson

Prime Minister

 

Rishi Sunack, MP Richmond, Yorkshire

 

Rishi Sunack

Chancellor Exchequer

 

 Alok Sharma MP, Reading West

 

Alok Sharma

Business & Energy

 

Grant Shapps MP Welwyn Hatfield

 

Grant Shapps

Transport

 

George Eustice

 

 George Eustice

Environment

 

 Robert Jenrick

 

Robert Jenrick

Housing, Local Gov.

 

 

SPONSORS OF THE BILL


Chris Grayling and Baroness Sugg - Transport 

 

 

 

WHO JUNE 2019 - A newly installed solar power plant in the Gaza Strip, Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT), will reduce Nasser Hospital’s reliance on donated fuel and, by providing life-saving interventions, help build resilience. This is according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

 

 

The Automated and Electric Vehicles Act 2018

 

2018 CHAPTER 18

 


An Act to make provision about automated vehicles and electric vehicles.
[19th July 2018]

 

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:— 

 

Introductory Text

 

PART 1 Automated vehicles: liability of insurers etc


1. Listing of automated vehicles by the Secretary of State
2. Liability of insurers etc where accident caused by automated vehicle
3. Contributory negligence etc
4. Accident resulting from unauthorised software alterations or failure to update software
5. Right of insurer etc to claim against person responsible for accident
6. Application of enactments
7. Report by Secretary of State on operation of this Part
8. Interpretation

 

 

PART 2 Electric vehicles: charging

 

Introductory

 

9. Definitions

 

(1) For the purposes of this Part —


(a) “charge point” means a device intended for charging a vehicle that is capable of being propelled by electrical power derived from a storage battery (or for discharging electricity stored in such a vehicle);
(b) “hydrogen refuelling point” means a device intended for refuelling a vehicle that is capable of being propelled by electrical power derived from hydrogen;
(c) a charge point or a hydrogen refuelling point is a “public charging or refuelling point” if it is provided for use by members of the general public.

 

(2) In this Part —

 

“operator”, in relation to a public charging or refuelling point, has the meaning given by regulations; 

 

“prescribed” means prescribed by regulations; 

 

“vehicle” means a vehicle that is intended or adapted for use on roads.

 

Requirements and prohibitions

 

 

10. Public charging or refuelling points: access, standards and connection

 

(1) Regulations may impose requirements on operators of public charging or refuelling points in connection with —


(a) the method of payment or other way by which access to the use of public charging or refuelling points may be obtained;
(b) performance, maintenance and availability of public charging or refuelling points;

(c) the components of public charging or refuelling points that provide the means by which vehicles connect to such points (“connecting components”).

 

(2) Regulations under subsection (1)(a) may require operators —

 

(a) to provide a prescribed method of payment or verification for obtaining access to the use of public charging or refuelling points;

(b) to co-operate with each other for the purposes of a requirement imposed by the regulations (for example, by sharing facilities or information);

(c) to take prescribed steps for the purposes of such a requirement (for example, to provide information to a prescribed person).

 

(3) Regulations under subsection (1)(b) may, for example, require the operator of a public charging or refuelling point to ensure that the point complies with prescribed requirements (which may include technical specifications).

 

(4) Regulations under subsection (1)(c) may, for example, require the operator of a public charging or refuelling point to ensure that its connecting components comply with prescribed requirements (which may include technical specifications for connecting components or any related equipment).

 

 

11. Large fuel retailers etc: provision of public charging or refuelling points

 

(1) Regulations may impose requirements on —

 

(a) large fuel retailers falling within a prescribed description, or
(b) service area operators falling within a prescribed description,
in connection with the provision on their premises of public charging or refuelling points.

 

(2) Regulations under subsection (1) may, for example —

 

(a) require large fuel retailers or service area operators to provide public charging or refuelling points;
(b) require public charging or refuelling points to be available for use at prescribed times;
(c) require services or facilities prescribed by the regulations to be provided in connection with public charging or refuelling points.

 

(3) In this section “large fuel retailer” and “service area operator” have the meaning given by regulations.

 

 

12. Duty to consider making regulations under section 11 (1) (a) on request by elected mayor

 

(1) The Secretary of State must consider making section 11(1)(a) regulations in relation to the whole or part of a relevant area if —

 

(a) the mayor for the relevant area makes a request for such regulations to be made,
(b) conditions 1 to 3 are met, and
(c) the Secretary of State considers that the mayor has complied with any prescribed requirements before making the request.

 

(2) “Section 11(1)(a) regulations” means regulations under section 11(1) that impose requirements on large fuel retailers within section 11(1)(a).

 

(3) Condition 1 is that the Secretary of State is satisfied that, before making the request, the mayor —

 

(a) published proposals for section 11(1)(a) regulations to be made in relation to the whole or part of the relevant area, an
(b) consulted —

 

(i) each local authority any part of whose area falls within the relevant area or, if the request relates to part of the relevant area, within that part,
(ii) persons who would be likely to be subject to requirements under the regulations (if made), and
(iii) such other persons as the mayor considers appropriate, in relation to the published proposals.

 

(4) Condition 2 is that the mayor has given the Secretary of State a summary of the responses to the consultation referred to in subsection (3)(b).

 

(5) Condition 3 is that regulations have been made under section 11(3) in relation to the meaning of “large fuel retailer”.

 

(6) If the Secretary of State decides not to make section 11(1)(a) regulations in response to the mayor’s request, the Secretary of State must notify the mayor of the decision and the reasons for it.

 

(7) For the purposes of this section —

 

(a) “relevant area” means the area of a combined authority or Greater London;
(b) the mayor for a relevant area is —

 

(i) in the case of the area of a combined authority, the mayor for the area elected in accordance with section 107A(2) of the 2009 Act;
(ii) in the case of Greater London, the Mayor of London.

 

(8) In this section —

 

“the 2009 Act” means the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009; 

 

“combined authority” means a combined authority established under section 103(1) of the 2009 Act; 

 

“large fuel retailer” has the same meaning as in section 11; 

 

“local authority” means — 


(a) a district council
(b) a county council, or 
(c) a London borough council. 


13. Information for users of public charging or refuelling points

 

(1) Regulations may require operators of public charging or refuelling points to make available prescribed information relating to such points.

 

(2) The information that may be prescribed under subsection (1) in relation to a public charging or refuelling point is such information as the Secretary of State considers likely to be useful to users or potential users of the point, for example information about —

 

(a) the location of the point and its operating hours,
(b) available charging or refuelling options,
(c) the cost of obtaining access to the use of the point,
(d) the method of payment or other way by which access to the use of the point may be obtained,
(e) means of connection to the point,
(f) whether the point is in working order, and
(g) whether the point is in use.

 

(3) The regulations may make provision —

 

(a) about when, how, to whom and in what form the information is to be made available;
(b) for the information to be made available without restrictions on its use and disclosure.
(4) The regulations may be made so as to have effect for a prescribed period.


14. Transmission of data relating to charge points

 

(1) Regulations may make provision for the purpose of ensuring the ongoing transmission of charge point data to a prescribed person or to persons of a prescribed description.

 

(2) “Charge point data” means prescribed information relating to a charge point (which may include information about energy consumption and geographical information).

 

(3) Regulations under subsection (1) may impose requirements —

 

(a) on operators of charge points that are provided for use by members of the general public, and

(b) in relation to charge points that are not provided as mentioned in paragraph (a), on prescribed persons or persons of a prescribed description (subject to subsection (4)).

 

(4) Regulations under subsection (1) may not impose requirements on owners or occupiers of domestic premises.

 

(5) Regulations under subsection (1) may make provision about when, how and in what form charge point data is to be transmitted.


15. Smart charge points

 

(1) Regulations may provide that a person must not sell or install a charge point unless it complies with prescribed requirements.

 

(2) The requirements that may be imposed under subsection (1) include requirements relating to the technical specifications for a charge point, including for example the ability of a charge point —

 

(a) to receive and process information provided by a prescribed person,
(b) to react to information of a kind mentioned in paragraph (a) (for example, by adjusting the rate of charging or discharging),
(c) to transmit information (including geographical information) to a prescribed person,
(d) to monitor and record energy consumption,
(e) to comply with requirements relating to security,
(f) to achieve energy efficiency, and
(g) to be accessed remotely.

 

(3) Regulations under subsection (1) may also prescribe requirements to be met in relation to the sale or installation of a charge point.

 

(4) In this section —

 

(a) “sell” includes let on hire, lend or give;
(b) references to a prescribed person include references to —

 

(i) a person of a prescribed description, and
(ii) a device operated by one or more prescribed persons.

 

General and supplementary

 

16. Enforcement

 

(1) Regulations under this Part may make provision for enforcement in connection with a contravention of a requirement or prohibition imposed by the regulations.

 

(2) Regulations made by virtue of subsection (1) may, for example —

 

(a) contain provision for determining whether there has been a failure to comply with a requirement or prohibition;
(b) provide for the imposition of a financial penalty (and for the payment of such a penalty into the Consolidated Fund);
(c) set out the procedure to be followed in imposing a penalty;
(d) make provision about the amount of a penalty;
(e) make provision about the enforcement of a penalty;
(f) provide for a right of appeal against the imposition of a penalty;
(g) provide for a determination for the purposes of the regulations to be made by the Secretary of State or a prescribed person.

 

(3) The provision referred to in subsection (2)(a) includes —

 

(a) provision authorising a prescribed person to enter any land in accordance with the regulations;
(b) provision for the inspection or testing of any thing by a prescribed person, which may for example include provision about —

 

(i) the production of documents or other things,
(ii) the provision of information,
(iii) the making of photographs or copies, and
(iv) the removal of any thing for the purpose of inspection or testing and its retention for that purpose for a reasonable period.


17. Exceptions

 

(1) Regulations under this Part may create exceptions from any requirement or prohibition imposed by the regulations.

 

(2) An exception may be created in relation to a prescribed description of persons or devices.

 

(3) The Secretary of State may determine that a requirement or prohibition imposed by regulations under this Part does not apply in relation to a person or device specified in the determination.

 

(4) The Secretary of State must publish a determination made under subsection (3).


18. Regulations

 

(1) Regulations under this Part —

 

(a) may make different provision for different purposes or different areas;
(b) may make supplemental, incidental, transitional or consequential provision.

 

(2) A power to make regulations under this Part is exercisable by the Secretary of State by statutory instrument.

 

(3) Before making regulations under this Part, the Secretary of State must consult such persons as the Secretary of State considers appropriate. 

 

(4) Subject to subsection (7), where —

 

(a) a statutory instrument contains regulations under this Part, and
(b) any of those regulations are the first regulations under a provision of this Part,
the instrument may not be made unless a draft of it has been laid before Parliament and approved by a resolution of each House. 

 

(5) Where —

 

(a) a statutory instrument contains regulations under section 11 (large fuel retailers etc), and
(b) the regulations amend the definition of “large fuel retailer” or “service area operator”,
the instrument containing the regulations may not be made unless a draft of it has been laid before Parliament and approved by a resolution of each House. 

 

(6) A statutory instrument containing regulations under this Part none of which are —

 

(a) the first regulations under a provision of this Part, or
(b) regulations to which subsection (5) applies,
is subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament. 

 

(7) Where regulations contain only provision made by virtue of —

 

(a) section 10(3) or (4) (prescribed requirements for public charging or refuelling points or for connecting components), or
(b) section 15 (prescribed requirements for charge points),
the instrument containing the regulations is subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament. 

 

(8) If a draft of a statutory instrument containing relevant section 11(1)(a) regulations would, apart from this subsection, be treated for the purposes of the standing orders of either House of Parliament as a hybrid instrument, it is to proceed in that House as if it were not such an instrument.

 

(9) In subsection (8) “relevant section 11(1)(a) regulations” means regulations under section 11(1)(a) that are made pursuant to section 12 (duty to consider making regulations under section 11(1)(a) on request by elected mayor).

 

19. Report by Secretary of State on operation of this Part

 

(1) The Secretary of State must, in respect of each reporting period, prepare a report assessing —

 

(a) the impact and effectiveness of regulations made under this Part;
(b) the need for regulations to be made under this Part during subsequent reporting periods.

 

(2) Each report must be laid before Parliament after the end of the reporting period to which it relates.

 

(3) The first reporting period is the period of two years beginning with the day on which this Act is passed.

 

(4) Each subsequent period of 12 months after the first reporting period is a reporting period.

 

PART 3 Miscellaneous and general

 

20. Minor and consequential amendments
21. Commencement
22. Extent
23. Short title

 

SCHEDULE

 

MINOR AND CONSEQUENTIAL AMENDMENTS

 

 

..

 

 

 

 


USA WASHINGTON DC - LEGAL DEFINITION

In Washington, DC's district code: 

 

"Autonomous vehicle" means a vehicle capable of navigating District roadways and interpreting traffic-control devices without a driver actively operating any of the vehicle's control systems. The term "autonomous vehicle" excludes a motor vehicle enabled with active safety systems or driver- assistance systems, including systems to provide electronic blind-spot assistance, crash avoidance, emergency braking, parking assistance, adaptive cruise control, lane-keep assistance, lane-departure warning, or traffic-jam and queuing assistance, unless the system alone or in combination with other systems enables the vehicle on which the technology is installed to drive without active control or monitoring by a human operator.

 

In the same district code, it is considered that: 

 

An autonomous vehicle may operate on a public roadway; provided, that the vehicle: 

 

(1) Has a manual override feature that allows a driver to assume control of the autonomous vehicle at any time;

 

(2) Has a driver seated in the control seat of the vehicle while in operation who is prepared to take control of the autonomous vehicle at any moment; and

 

(3) Is capable of operating in compliance with the District's applicable traffic laws and motor vehicle laws and traffic control devices.

 

 

 

 

HISTORY OF AUTOMATED CARS

 

The first semi-automated car was developed in 1977, by Japan's Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, which required specially marked streets that were interpreted by two cameras on the vehicle and an analog computer. The vehicle reached speeds up to 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) with the support of an elevated rail.

A landmark autonomous car appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon University's Navlab and ALV projects funded by the United States' Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) starting in 1984 and Mercedes-Benz and Bundeswehr University Munich's EUREKA Prometheus Project in 1987. By 1985, the ALV had demonstrated self-driving speeds on two-lane roads of 31 kilometres per hour (19 mph), with obstacle avoidance added in 1986, and off-road driving in day and nighttime conditions by 1987. A major milestone was achieved in 1995, with CMU's NavLab 5 completing the first autonomous coast-to-coast drive of the United States. Of the 2,849 mi (4,585 km) between Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and San Diego, California, 2,797 mi (4,501 km) were autonomous (98.2%), completed with an average speed of 63.8 mph (102.7 km/h).

From the 1960s through the second DARPA Grand Challenge in 2005, automated vehicle research in the United States was primarily funded by DARPA, the US Army, and the US Navy, yielding incremental advances in speeds, driving competence in more complex conditions, controls, and sensor systems. Companies and research organizations have developed prototypes.

The US allocated US$650 million in 1991 for research on the National Automated Highway System, which demonstrated automated driving through a combination of automation embedded in the highway with automated technology in vehicles, and cooperative networking between the vehicles and with the highway infrastructure. The program concluded with a successful demonstration in 1997 but without clear direction or funding to implement the system on a larger scale. Partly funded by the National Automated Highway System and DARPA, the Carnegie Mellon University Navlab drove 4,584 kilometres (2,848 mi) across America in 1995, 4,501 kilometres (2,797 mi) or 98% of it autonomously.

Navlab's record achievement stood unmatched for two decades until 2015, when Delphi improved it by piloting an Audi, augmented with Delphi technology, over 5,472 kilometres (3,400 mi) through 15 states while remaining in self-driving mode 99% of the time. In 2015, the US states of Nevada, Florida, California, Virginia, and Michigan, together with Washington, DC, allowed the testing of automated cars on public roads.

From 2016 to 2018, the European Commission funded an innovation strategy development for connected and automated driving through the Coordination Actions CARTRE and SCOUT. Moreover, the Strategic Transport Research and Innovation Agenda (STRIA) Roadmap for Connected and Automated Transport was published in 2019.

In 2017, Audi stated that its latest A8 would be automated at speeds of up to 60 kilometres per hour (37 mph) using its "Audi AI". The driver would not have to do safety checks such as frequently gripping the steering wheel. The Audi A8 was claimed to be the first production car to reach Level 3 automated driving, and Audi would be the first manufacturer to use laser scanners in addition to cameras and ultrasonic sensors for their system.

 

 

 

ROBOCAR - A driverless racing car for RoboRace. Great, saves the high cost of human drivers.

 

 

In November 2017, Waymo announced that it had begun testing driverless cars without a safety driver in the driver position; however, there was still an employee in the car. In October 2018, Waymo announced that its test vehicles had traveled in automated mode for over 10,000,000 miles (16,000,000 km), increasing by about 1,000,000 miles (1,600,000 kilometres) per month. In December 2018, Waymo was the first to commercialize a fully autonomous taxi service in the US, in Phoenix, Arizona.

A*STAR's Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R) developed a self-driving vehicle which was the first to be approved in Singapore for public road testing at one-north in July 2015. It has ferried several dignitaries such as Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, Minister S. Iswaran, Minister Vivian Balakrishnan, and several ministers from other countries.

 

In 2020, a National Transportation Safety Board chairman clarified there is no self-driving car in the US in 2020: 

"There is not a vehicle currently available to US consumers that is self-driving. Period. Every vehicle sold to US consumers still requires the driver to be actively engaged in the driving task, even when advanced driver assistance systems are activated. If you are selling a car with an advanced driver assistance system, you’re not selling a self-driving car. If you are driving a car with an advanced driver assistance system, you don’t own a self-driving car."

 

 

 

 

LEVELS OF DRIVING AUTOMATION

In SAE's automation level definitions, "driving mode" means "a type of driving scenario with characteristic dynamic driving task requirements (e.g., expressway merging, high speed cruising, low speed traffic jam, closed-campus operations, etc.)"

 

Level 0: The automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control.

Level 1 ("hands on"): The driver and the automated system share control of the vehicle. Examples are systems where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls engine power to maintain a set speed (Cruise Control) or engine and brake power to maintain and vary speed (Adaptive Cruise Control or ACC); and Parking Assistance, where steering is automated while speed is under manual control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA) Type II is a further example of Level 1 self-driving. The Automatic Emergency Braking feature which alerts the driver to a crash and deploys full braking capacity is also a Level 1 feature.

Level 2 ("hands off"): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle: accelerating, braking, and steering. The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. The shorthand "hands off" is not meant to be taken literally – contact between hand and wheel is often mandatory during SAE 2 driving, to confirm that the driver is ready to intervene.

Level 3 ("eyes off"): The driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, e.g. the driver can text or watch a movie. The vehicle will handle situations that call for an immediate response, like emergency braking. The driver must still be prepared to intervene within some limited time, specified by the manufacturer, when called upon by the vehicle to do so.

Level 4 ("mind off"): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Self-driving is supported only in limited spatial areas (geofenced) or under special circumstances. Outside of these areas or circumstances, the vehicle must be able to safely abort the trip, e.g. park the car, if the driver does not retake control. An example would be a robotic taxi or a robotic delivery service that only covers selected locations in a specific area.

Level 5 ("steering wheel optional"): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi that works an all roads all over the world, all year around, in all weather conditions.

In the formal SAE definition below, note in particular the shift from SAE 2 to SAE 3: the human driver no longer has to monitor the environment. This is the final aspect of the "dynamic driving task" that is now passed over from the human to the automated system. At SAE 3, the human driver still has responsibility to intervene when asked to do so by the automated system. At SAE 4 the human driver is always relieved of that responsibility and at SAE 5 the automated system will never need to ask for an intervention. 

 

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CLIMATE CHANGE COP HISTORY

 

1995 COP 1, BERLIN, GERMANY

2008 COP 14/CMP 4, POZNAN, POLAND

1996 COP 2, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND

2009 COP 15/CMP 5, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK

1997 COP 3, KYOTO, JAPAN

2010 COP 16/CMP 6, CANCUN, MEXICO

1998 COP 4, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

2011 COP 17/CMP 7, DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

1999 COP 5, BONN, GERMANY

2012 COP 18/CMP 8, DOHA, QATAR

2000:COP 6, THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS

2013 COP 19/CMP 9, WARSAW, POLAND

2001 COP 7, MARRAKECH, MOROCCO

2014 COP 20/CMP 10, LIMA, PERU

2002 COP 8, NEW DELHI, INDIA

2015 COP 21/CMP 11, Paris, France

2003 COP 9, MILAN, ITALY

2016 COP 22/CMP 12/CMA 1, Marrakech, Morocco

2004 COP 10, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

2017 COP 23/CMP 13/CMA 2, Bonn, Germany

2005 COP 11/CMP 1, MONTREAL, CANADA

2018 COP 24/CMP 14/CMA, Katowice, Poland

2006 COP 12/CMP 2, NAIROBI, KENYA

2019 COP 25/CMP 15/CMA, Madrid, Spain

2007 COP 13/CMP 3, BALI, INDONESIA

2020 COP 26/CMP 16/CMA 3, Glasgow, Scotland

 

 

 

 

 

TOP POWER COMPANIES A - Z 

 

Duke Energy Corporation, DUK, N. Carolina, USA

Dominion Energy Inc., Richmond, Virginia

EDF Électricité de France SA

ENEL

Engie

E.ON

Exelon Corporation EXC, Chicago, USA

GE General Electric

Iberdrola

KEPCO Korean Electric Power Corporation

National Electric Grid & Central Electricity Authority (India)

National Energy Board (Canada)

National Grid plc (formerly Central Electricity Generating Board UK)

Next Era Energy Inc. Florida, USA
Scottish & Southern Energy

Southern Company, Atlanta, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, USA

State Grid Corporation of China

TEPCO Tokyo Electric Power Company

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIX STEPS TOWARD A COOLER PLANET

 

1. TRANSPORT: Phase out polluting vehicles. Governments aim to end the sale of new petrol, and diesel vehicles by 2040 but have no feasible infrastructure plan to support such ambition. Marine transport can be carbon neutral with smaller container ships that are solar and wind powered.

 

2. RENEWABLESRenewable energy should replace carbon-based fuels (coal, oil and gas) in our electricity, heating and transport.

 

3. HOUSING: On site micro or macro generation is the best option, starting with new build homes that are zero carbon, or energy neutral. We must make it illegal for councils to grant planning permission to any new houses that are not compliant. Local authorities are to blame for kleptocratic decision making - making them climate criminals.

 

4. AGRICULTURE: We need trees to absorb carbon emissions from a growing population, flying, and to build affordable new homes. Reducing food waste and promoting less energy intensive eating habits such as no meat Mondays.

 

5. INDUSTRY: Factories should be aiming for solar heating and onsite renewable energy generation.

 

6. POLITICS: - National governing bodies need to adopt rules to eliminate administrative wastages, to include scaling down spending on war machines, increasing spend on educating the public and supporting sustainable social policies that mesh with other cultures. One way of pushing this agenda is total transparency in Governments and Courts as per United Nations SDG 16. This would tend to prevent corrupt politicians and civil servants from pursuing unlawful agendas.

 

 

 

 

CONTACTS

 

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LINKS & REFERENCES

 

http://electricvanandtruck.com/the-race-to-decarbonise/

https://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/vehicles/road/electric_en

http://electricvanandtruck.com/electric-vehicles-act-uk/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-driving_car

https://www.gov.uk/government/news/boost-for-electric-and-driverless-car-industry-as-government-drives-forward-green-transport-revolution

https://lordsbusiness.parliament.uk/ItemOfBusiness?itemOfBusinessId=52304&sectionId=40&businessPaperDate=2018-07-19

https://services.parliament.uk/bills/2017-19/automatedandelectricvehicles.html

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/

 

 

 

 

 This website is provided on a free basis as a public information service. copyright © Climate Change Trust 2020. Solar Studios, BN271RF, United Kingdom.

 

 

LOOKING FOR COOLER WAYS TO GENERATE ENERGY FOR LIFE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM