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EXAMPLES OF EV RANGES - For most users, 100 miles range would allow the shopping run and visits to the folks and friends, without too much of a panic about range limitation.
Range anxiety is the fear that a vehicle has insufficient range to reach its destination and would thus strand the vehicle's occupants. The term, which is primarily used in reference to battery electric vehicles (BEVs), is considered to be one of the major barriers to large scale adoption of all-electric cars.
At the moment car makers produce vehicles with onboard electrical sockets on the assumption that charging points will be available along our streets and in car parks for every vehicle that covers longer distances. You may have noticed the absence of such charging spaces where you live and work. But, conventional fast charging can replenish around 80% of charge in about 1-2 hours. In our view this is far too slow.
It is the fear of waiting that is causing Range Anxiety and putting off motorists who would otherwise jump at the chance to drive clean EVs. Nobody has the time to hang around for an hour while a car charges, though you could grab a snack while waiting. Our busy lives do not allow for this, except for retired drivers who have more time to spare.
Car owners that have their own charging point at home in a garage, etc., would charge from home overnight, but most people in towns and cities would not have that luxury, unless there were more car parks with charging points.
The convenience of filling up with petrol or diesel at a service station pump in a matter of a couple of minutes would be lost, if purchasing an electric vehicle at the moment. This convenience is especially important for commercial vehicles that work all day traveling long distances or delivery drivers delivering locally all day long.
The term range anxiety was first reported in the press on September 1, 1997 in the San Diego Business Journal by Richard Acello referring to worries of GM EV1 electric car drivers.
The Norwegian equivalent rekkeviddeangst was assigned second place in a list of Norwegian "words of the year" for 2013 by the Norwegian Language Council.
TESLA S CARTRIDGE EXCHANGE - This concept is not a million miles away from SMARTNET, except that the underground method makes it expensive and complicated. This is a variation of the Better Place system. The point here is that with a bit of tweaking, FASTCHARGE can be made to work in practical terms.
1900 - Cartridges as an energy transfer medium were first used by Professor Porsche in the early 1900s. He then increased range with petrol dynamo and gave up when petrol cars got electric starter motors.
1990 - Buses with cartridge exchange were used at Kobe, Japan, in the 1990s.
2009 - The next serious attempt to perfect the concept came with Shai Agassi's 'Better Place' system, using service stations in Denmark and Israel, but only for batteries as the energy storage medium. The service stations were expensive and the loading mechanism complicated, but were still planned for California, but the company folded in 2013.
2013 - Elon Musk came next with a Tesla S production vehicle modified to swap cartridges. Once again the underground (or above ground stage) required expensive installations, and this system was only for battery cartridges. Tesla is now concentrating on rapid charge stations.
2014 - William Li starts NIO, by 2019 the company has sold over 9,000 units and installed a number of battery swap stations.
2016 - PowerSwap swaps from liquid to solid cartridge energy storage, announcing their system in December 2017
2020 - The proposed SmartNet system aims to resolve the issues identified from the Better Place and Tesla systems, by incorporating fuel cells in standard cartridges as future proofing and reducing the buy in cost with networked flat pack service stations that any utility, supermarket or energy company might operate.
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