H2020 FCH-01-3 EV LIQUID HYDROGEN
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FCH-01-3-2020 Liquid Hydrogen on-board storage tanks
The range limitation is less critical for fleet trucks with short routes: 350 bar H2 storage seems to be sufficient for municipal vehicles, buses and even parcel delivery trucks. For trucking applications with larger payload and less dense HRS network, for instance regional and long haul, other solutions need to be investigated.
Pressures of 500 to 700 bar indeed offer more volumetric capacity (more than 20 to 45% over 350 bar) but these solutions are costly and bring in hurdles on the infrastructure where large capacities need to be dispensed rapidly, while controlling the inlet temperature and allowing high station demand (“back-to-back”).
A few configurations will be used as benchmark: rail mounting, behind cab, and within frame. The overall shape of the storage system is important, and advanced storage solutions to optimize the energy density (through e.g. a single vacuum jacket with multiple cylinders) should be investigated.
The mechanical design should meet all requirements typical of the trucking industry in terms of durability, exposure to harsh environments, vibrations, accelerations, safeties. Pressure in the LH2 storage tank should be compatible with the pressure at which the
fuel cell typically operates. Alternatively, mitigation strategies should be proposed.
TRL at start of the project:
4 and TRL at the end of the project:
- Volumetric capacity at tank system level: 0.045kg/L28;
Gravimetric capacity at tank system level: 10% (H2/(H2+tank system)).
AUTOMOTIVE EV COMPARISON - Where charging up a battery-powered car can take anything from half an hour to a whole night, you can refuel a hydrogen car in just five minutes using flexible hoses. But, you can also refuel a battery car in less time using cartridge exchange. Meaning that hydrogen loses out, if we take into account conversion losses. For this reason hydrogen is unlikely to achieve the same level of market penetration, without a means to work alongside battery vehicles, such that the choice for the buying public is not such a risk, as if putting all your eggs in one basket.
THE SLOW LANE - We all live fast lifestyles. Waiting 30 minutes for rapid charging not only strains the grid, but also damages batteries, and nobody has thirty minutes to waste - best case - worst case 6-8 hours. A truck size battery would take hours to (so-called) rapid charge. It is just not practical. Ignoring for now that there are no charging points along the streets in towns and cities, or at supermarkets.
BATTERY CARTRIDGE FORMAT PROPOSAL - This cartridge format provides 0.24 of a meter cubic capacity. All of these formats can be used in multiples to provide up to 1.92 of a cubic meter capacity. This is one of a number of sizes that we will be evaluating as part of a study we hope to obtain funding for.
MODEL 1:20 - April 6 2020, a model of the service station is under construction, shown here with two Mercedes articulated container trucks inside. We are using plywood for the building and some of the working parts - that cannot be shown due to patent law prohibiting prior publication. The Automated & Electric Vehicle Act 2018, makes it law in England that provision must be made for charging and refuelling of electric vehicles at service stops. This system would more accurately be described as a refuelling point - since the energy exchanges for trucks and cars are virtually instant. The building can be a quarter this size for city locations where space is limited. But for load levelling purposes, the larger the capacity of stored electricity, the more efficient the grid. Copyright photograph © 6 April 2020, Cleaner Ocean Foundation.
GRAND CHALLENGES - UK
EIC EUROPEAN INNOVATION COUNCIL ACCELERATOR (PILOT)
EIB EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK LOCAL ENERGY ASSISTANCE
4. Make electric cars cheaper to buy and operate with Pay As You Drive technology future proofing.
TECHNOLOGICAL COMPASS - It is the part of a wise man to keep himself today for tomorrow, and not to venture all his eggs in one basket. SMARTNET allows for change in technology. You don't have to bet on batteries or fuel cells. Include both in a diverse asset portfolio - and watch you egg hatch into a solution.
Bluebird Energy Systems (SME)
PIC No: 895922168
Cleaner Ocean Foundation (Not for Profit)
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